By Lance H. Gunderson, C. S. Holling
The ebook examines theories (models) of the way platforms (those of people, nature, and mixed humannatural platforms) functionality, and makes an attempt to appreciate these theories and the way they could aid researchers strengthen powerful associations and rules for environmental administration. the elemental query this e-book asks is whether it truly is attainable to get past seeing surroundings as a sub-component of social structures, and society as a sub-component of ecological platforms, that's, to appreciate human-environment interactions as their very own precise procedure. After reading the similarities and alterations between human and traditional structures, in addition to the capability in which they are often accounted for in theories and versions, the e-book examines 5 efforts to explain human-natural structures. the purpose of those efforts is to supply the technique of studying approximately these structures with the intention to be controlled adaptively. the ultimate component to the booklet makes use of case experiences to ascertain the applying of built-in theories/models to the true international.
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Additional resources for Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems
Episodic behavior is caused by interactions between fast and slow variables. • Spatial attributes are neither uniform nor scale invariant over all scales. Rather, productivity and textures are patchy and discontinuous at all scales, from the leaf to the landscape to the planet. There are several different ranges of scales, each with different attributes of architectural patchiness and texture and each controlled by a specific set of abiotic and biotic processes. They make attributes of the natural world lumpy, rather than continuous (Holling 1992), thereby concentrating resources and opportunities at particular scales.
The consequences of those different aspects for ecological systems were first emphasized by Holling (1973b) in order to draw attention to the tension created between efficiency on the one hand and persistence on the other, or between constancy and change, or between predictability and unpredictability. One definition focuses on efficiency, control, constancy, and predictability-all attributes at the core of desires for fail-safe design and optimal performance. Those desires are appropriate for systems where uncertainty is low, but they can be counterproductive for dynamic, evolving systems where variability and novelty result in high uncertainty.
A number of cases point to a common cause behind such examples of failure of management of renewable resources (Holling 1986; Gunderson et al. 1995a). In each case, a target variable (fish stock, meat production, pest control, or water level) is identified and successfully controlled. Uncertainty in nature is presumed to be replaced by certainty of human control. Social systems initially flourish from this ecological stabilization and resulting economic opportunity. But that success creates its own failure.