By Art F. Diaz, Donna L. Drogos
This article offers the most recent details on cellular, recalcitrant compounds in fuel and the newly rising compounds being constructed to be used in gas and different vehicular fuels. using a few of these compounds has resulted from environmental rules specifying the addition of oxygenates to fuel and papers during this quantity ponder the chemical, geochemical, hydrogeological, and atmospheric habit of oxygenates. equipment for research, detection, and remediation, and the multidiscipliniary techniques had to meet the demanding situations posed by way of those compounds also are mentioned.
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Extra resources for Oxygenates in Gasoline: Environmental Aspects
The MTBE concentrations in these groundwaters are higher than in the East Bay example. Local point sources may contribute some of this MTBE. For example, one production well water had a pre-industrial age determined from tritium and radiocarbon measurements (19). However, the MTBE concentration was -100 ng L" , suggesting a small contribution from a high concentration source. 1 Conclusions MTBE is ubiquitous in surface waters when measured at the low level detection limit (15 ng L" ). e. the major tributaries to San Francisco Bay) had measurable M T B E concentrations.
The benzene trend consists of small mean concentration fluctuations (200-1000 ppb) overlaying a consistent mean concentration of approximately 2500 ppb. The MTBE trend consists of relatively largefluctuations(3000-4000 ppb) superimposed on an upward trend (1000 to 9000 ppb from early-1996 to mid-1999). Large swings in observed MTBE concentrations throughout the state should be expected in the future. For all compounds and especially for MTBE, significantly reduced concentrations during extended periods of low water table levels should not be mistaken for attenuation.
In February 2000,21 states had, or projected having, MTBE ground water cleanup levels within or below the December 1997 EPA Advisory range (20 to 40 ppb). In addition, 13 states had MTBE cleanup levels above the Advisory range and 4 other states maintained "sitespecific" ability to apply MTBE cleanup levels. Only 12 states did not have MTBE cleanup levels for contaminated ground water. The majority of the states without established MTBE cleanup or action levels were still expecting an EPA MCL to be established that would preclude the need for a state-specific MCL initiative (Figure 2).