By Willem Takken, Bart G. J. Knols
It is a multi-authored e-book with a spotlight at the function of olfaction (the feel of odor) within the multitude of interactions among arthropods and their blood hosts. so much arthropods, like bugs, don't depend upon a vertebrate host for survival and copy. against this, the health of these that do, relies on how successfully they could notice the presence of a bunch and actively find it to acquire a blood meal. this is often the area of olfaction, that's probably an important mode of sign alternate among hosts and blood-feeding arthropods that stopover at them. very important human and family animal illnesses like malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, bluetongue and trypanosomiasis are transmitted among people and/or family animals as a right away end result of olfactory responses mediated by means of host odours. elevated realizing of olfaction and the way this governs interactions among arthropods and blood hosts will let the improvement of novel ideas to disrupt this behaviour.Many species of tsetse fly, for example, reply over distance to easy blends of artificial odours. mixed with traps or insecticide-treated ambitions, such odour-baited units can successfully suppress fly populations and therefore transmission of dozing illness. Such platforms nonetheless must be built for disease-vectoring mosquitoes necessitating extra wisdom at the chemical foundation of interactions with people. In 18 peer-reviewed chapters, well-known specialists supply a cutting-edge assessment of olfaction in vector-host interactions, from the molecular to inhabitants biology point. Novel principles, definition of analysis gaps, and a suite of the newest experiences can be of worth to biology scholars, chemical ecologists, in addition to these imposing vector regulate programmes
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Extra info for Olfaction in Vector-Host Interactions: Ecology and Control of Vector-borne Diseases
Takken W and Knols BG (1999) Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol 44: 131-157. Vogt RG (2002) Odorant binding protein homologues of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae; possible orthologues of the OS-E and OS-F OBPs OF Drosophila melanogaster. J Chem Ecol 28: 2371-2376. Vogt RG, Prestwich G. D and Riddiford LM (1988) Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog. J Biol Chem 263: 3952-3959. Vogt RG and Riddiford LM (1981) Pheremone binding and inactivation by moth antennae.
Mosquito breeding sites produce semiochemicals, mainly of microbial origin, that stimulate mosquito oviposition (Beehler et al. 1994a, Hasselschwert and Rockett 1988, Hazard et al. 1967). Infusions from decaying wood were found attractive to gravid Ae. triseriatus (Say) and an active component was identified as p-cresol (4-methylphenol) (Bentley et al. 1979, 1981). Grass infusions were shown to contain oviposition stimuli for Culex mosquitoes, the attractive compounds include, among others, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol and indole (Du and Millar 1999, Millar et al.
2008). The behavioural responses of mosquitoes to olfactory cues is reviewed in detail in the laboratory (Chapter 7), and in the (semi-)field (Chapter 8) elsewhere in this Volume. Response spectra of mosquito ORNs The response characteristics of ORNs are determined by the ORs expressed therein (Hallem et al. 2004b). Normally ORNs in morphologically different sensilla have different response spectra indicating that they express different ORs. Moreover, sensilla that appear morphologically similar may house ORNs with different response spectra.