By Amitava Rakshit, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, Avijit Sen
This booklet addresses intimately multifaceted methods to boosting nutrient use potency (NUE) which are converted by way of plant interactions with environmental variables and mix physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic elements. Conveying an in-depth realizing of the subject will spark the improvement of latest cultivars and lines to urge NUE, coupled with top administration practices that would immensely gain agricultural structures, safeguarding their soil, water, and air caliber. Written by means of famous specialists within the box, the publication is meant to supply scholars, scientists and policymakers with crucial insights into holistic techniques to NUE, in addition to an outline of a few winning case reviews. within the current knowing of agriculture, NUE represents a question of approach optimization in accordance with the expanding fragility of our average assets base and threats to nutrients grain protection around the globe. additional enhancing nutrient use potency is a prerequisite to lowering construction bills, increasing crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient assets, and fighting environmental illness. The foodstuff most ordinarily proscribing plant development are N, P, ok, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends upon the facility to successfully take in the nutrient from the soil, but additionally on shipping, garage, mobilization, utilization in the plant and the surroundings. a few methods can assist us to appreciate NUE as an entire. One includes adopting top crop administration practices that take into consideration root-induced rhizosphere techniques, which play a pivotal position in controlling nutrient dynamics within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New applied sciences, from simple instruments like leaf colour charts to stylish sensor-based structures and laser land leveling, can lessen the dependency on laboratory guidance and guide exertions. one other procedure issues the improvement of crop vegetation via genetic manipulations that let them to take in and assimilate meals extra successfully, in addition to picking out tactics of plant responses to nutrient deficiency pressure and exploring normal genetic version. even though just recently brought, the power of microbial inoculants to urge NUE is gaining in value, because the loss, immobilization, unlock and availability of foodstuff are mediated by way of soil microbial processes.
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Extra resources for Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances
Diffusion and mass ﬂow in soil: buffer capacity, ionic concentration, ionic properties, tortuosity, soil moisture, bulk density, temperature 2. Root morphological factors: number, length, root hair density, root extension, root density 3. Rhizosphere modiﬁcation 4. Physiological: root: shoot ratio, root microorganisms (rhizobia, azotobacter, mycorrhizal fungi), nutrient status, water uptake, nutrient inﬂux and efﬂux, nutrient transport in roots and shoots, afﬁnity to uptake (Km), threshold concentration (Cmin) 5.
Nutrient acquisition 1. Diffusion and mass ﬂow in soil: buffer capacity, ionic concentration, ionic properties, tortuosity, soil moisture, bulk density, temperature 2. Root morphological factors: number, length, root hair density, root extension, root density 3. Rhizosphere modiﬁcation 4. Physiological: root: shoot ratio, root microorganisms (rhizobia, azotobacter, mycorrhizal fungi), nutrient status, water uptake, nutrient inﬂux and efﬂux, nutrient transport in roots and shoots, afﬁnity to uptake (Km), threshold concentration (Cmin) 5.
Nutrient utilization and growth 1. Nutrient metabolism at reduced tissue concentration 2. Lower element concentration in supporting structure, particularly stem 3. Elemental substitution (Na for K, Fe for Mn, Mo for P, Co for Ni) 4. Biochemical (nitrate reductase for N-use efﬁciency, glutamate dehydrogenase for N metabolism, peroxidase for Fe efﬁciency, pyruvate kinase for K deﬁciency, metallothionein for metal toxicities, ascorbic acid oxidase for Cu, carnonic anhydrase for Zn) a Modiﬁed from Baligar et al.