By M. Mani, C. Shivaraju
This booklet is a compilation of knowledge on all easy elements of mealybugs, in addition to administration innovations for mealybug species affecting assorted crop vegetation in several international locations. It highlights the most recent info on morphology, cytogenetics, taxonomy, molecular characterization, biology, harm, ecology, common enemies, ant organization, keep watch over measures, insecticide resistance and pheromones – crucial points as a way to equip researchers to pursue additional study on mealybugs. The publication examines present tendencies within the administration of mealybugs for numerous agricultural and horticultural plants, woodland crops and mulberry in several international locations, whereas additionally addressing the unwanted effects of chemical keep watch over equipment and proposing good fortune tales of mealybug keep watch over that make the most of their normal enemies. It deals a necessary consultant for crop growers, govt officers and different stakeholders within the undefined, in addition to researchers and scholars engaged in comparable examine and improvement activities.
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Extra info for Mealybugs and their Management in Agricultural and Horticultural crops
The average diameter of the dorsal and ventral pairs is 30 and 34 μ, respectively. Lateral pair is 25 μ in diameter at the base and 18 μ high on an average. Mouthparts are absent. 42 mm wide; each wing has four to ﬁve sensory setae near the basal region; average measurements of the posterior leg in μ are trochanter, 62 × 26; femur, 216 × 39; tibia, 283 × 23; tarsus, 99 × 19; claw, 34; tarsal digitule is very slender, 34. As in antennae, legs are clothed with both digitiform and slender-pointed setae, their maximum length being 31 and 21 μ, M.
Head: Seven jointed antennae, average measurements in μ are I, 45; II, 39; III, 31; IV, 26; V, 27; VI, 30; VII, 74. Eye is about 25 μ in diameter at the base and 15 μ high. Beak is conical, on an average 98 μ long and 52 μ wide at the base. Thorax: Average measurements 2 Morphology 13 of posterior leg in μ are trochanter, 66 × 34; femur, 127 × 53; tibia, 121 × 30; tarsus, 87 × 26; claw, 27; tarsal digitule, 36; claw digitule, 24. Anterior spiracle is about 34 μ long and 13 μ wide at atrium; posterior one is 36 μ long and 13 μ wide.
2). Four pairs of cerarii with two conical setae on the abdominal segments VI–IX are present. The cerarian setae of the other abdominal segments are elongated and slender. Usually, two ducts of oral rim type and three trilocular disc pores in each cerarian zone of segments IX and VIII and two disc pores in the ceracian zone of all other abdominal segments are present. Head: Six jointed antennae, average measurements in μ are I, 35; II, 23; III, 33; IV, 21; V, 21; VI, 62. Eye about 21 μ in diameter at the base and 9 μ high.