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By David Barnette

Map Coloring Polyhedra and the 4 colour challenge - Dolciani Mathematical Expositions

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The vectors {νj } are the stoichiometric vectors (also called the state change vectors): After the j-th reaction, the state of the system changes from x to x + νj . For example, if the first reaction happens, then one molecule in the S1 conformation changes to the S2 conformation. Hence x1 is decreased by 1, x2 is increased by 1, and x3 and x4 remain the same. 3. AVERAGING METHODS If we start the system with roughly the same number of molecules in each conformation and observe how the system evolves, we will see fast conformation changes between S1 and S2 , and between S3 and S4 , with occasional, much more rare conformation changes between S2 and S3 .

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