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Based on fabric introduced at numerous summer time faculties, this e-book is the 1st entire textbook on the graduate point encompassing all facets linked to the rising box of astrobiology.
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Extra resources for Lectures in astrobiology II
18. Illustration of the various successive stages of the core collapse of a massive star; see Sect. 2 for details (from Guidry 1998) Iron core collapse proceeds in a timescale of milliseconds. Due to increasingly high temperatures, photodisintegrations tear down Fe nuclei to nucleons and alpha particles, while higher densities favor electron captures and conversion of protons to neutrons. When the density of nuclear matter is reached (ρ ∼1014 g cm−3 ) the repulsive component of the strong nuclear force brings the collapse of the inner core abruptly to a halt.
SNIa are encountered in all types of galaxies, including ellipticals, which have ceased star formation billions of years ago and contain only old populations of low mass stars. , spirals and irregulars. Combined with the lack of H, that property of SNIa suggests that they originate from a population of old objects that have lost their H envelope. White dwarfs are the obvious candidates. Indeed, the thermonuclear burning of 1 Ma of C-O to 56 Ni releases about 1051 ergs, suﬃcient to account for the observed energetics of SNIa.
4 Overview of the Advanced Evolutionary Phases A schematic view of the interior evolution of a massive star is presented in Fig. 16. The life of a massive star is essentially a series of relatively long quiescent central burning stages interrupted by much shorter periods of core contraction and heating, which lead to the ignition of the next fuel. Shell burning of a given nuclear fuel also takes place at the border of the former convective core, where that fuel has been exhausted; the burning shell progressively migrates outwards.