By William H. Kruskal, Judith Tanor

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Note that complex arithmetic is not used unless explicitly requested, so sqrt(x) for x real and negative produces an error. complex(x)) or sqrt(x + 0i). The recycling rule The expression y + 2 is a syntactically natural way to add 2 to each element of the vector y , but 2 is a vector of length 1 and y may be a vector of any length. A convention is needed to handle vectors occurring in the same expression but not all of the same length. The value of the expression is a vector with the same length as that of the longest vector occurring in the expression.

Xxx that convert to the specified type in the best way possible. matrix will convert a numerical data frame to a numerical matrix, and a data frame with any character or factor columns to a character matrix. character is often useful to generate names and other labels. xxx test if their argument is of the required type. vector has the (often useful) side effect of discarding all attributes. Many of these functions are being superseded by the more general functions8 as and is , which have as arguments an object and a class.

Names = F) [1] "Anna" "Fred" "3" "4" "7" "9" which can be useful for a compact printout (as here). ) Attributes Most objects6 can have attributes, other objects attached by name to the object. The dimension and dimnames (if any) of an array are attributes: > attributes(myarr) $dim: [1] 3 5 2 $dimnames: $dimnames[[1]]: [1] "a" "b" "c" $dimnames[[2]]: character(0) ## NULL in R $dimnames[[3]]: [1] "(i)" "(ii)" > attr(myarr, "dim") [1] 3 5 2 The attributes are a list. Notice the notation for $dimnames[[2]]: this is a zerolength character vector.