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Considers easy problems with functionality, exploring how innovations for fast studying impact long term retention, no matter if an expert's habit can function a version for newbies, if group functionality is the sum of person individuals' performances, and no matter if subliminal studying has a foundation in technological know-how
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Extra resources for In the Minds Eye: Enhancing Human Performance
For a fixed amount of practice, however, learning (as measured by a later retention test) depends on the temporal distribution of practice, and the nature of that dependency illustrates that performance during training is an unreliable indicator of learning. , during training) but much poorer performance in the long term than does spacing of practice. , Glenberg, 1979; Glenberg and Lehmann, 1980; Melton, 1970; and Rothkopf and Coke, 1966). The so-called spacing effect—that practice sessions spaced in time are superior to massed practices in terms of long-term retention—is one of the most reliable phenomena in human experimental psychology.
For enhancing retention, when to introduce the supplementary trials does not appear to be a critical factor; the level of overlearning is far more important than the time at which the supplementary trials are introduced (Schendel and Hagman, 1982). , Bell, 1950; McGeoch and Irion, 1952; Melnick, 1971). In other words, increasing the number of overlearning trials may not produce proportionate increases in retention. Thus, although 100 percent overlearning may result in better retention than 50 percent, the additional gain that occurs may not be worth the additional time and practice.
Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. OPTIMIZING LONG-TERM RETENTION AND TRANSFER 25 enhance performance during training may or may not enhance long-term retention and transfer to altered contexts; conversely, procedures that introduce difficulties for the learner and impair performance during training may foster durable and flexible posttraining skills (for some examples, see Schmidt and Bjork, 1992). In short, the goal is to have training programs that optimize learning—some relatively permanent change in the capacity for responding—but what is observed during training is performance localized in a given place and time.