By Sarah Milledge Nelson, Myriam Rosen-Ayalon
Written by means of a exceptional staff of feminist archaeologists, In Pursuit of Gender examines the function of gender in archaeology, a space that has lengthy been ignored. The chapters during this quantity characterize websites and cultures which have been interpreted or reinterpreted from the viewpoint of gender, exploding outdated assumptions approximately ladies and the jobs they held. tremendously illuminating the topic of gender from the point of view in their personal local traditions, the authors take the reader via an authoritative and accomplished dialogue of gender archaeology in Asia, Africa, North and South the US. Societies represented contain hunter-gatherers, early horticulturalists, incipient and well-developed states, ancient groups, in addition to ethnoarchaeological explorations. The chapters are characterized by way of a better specificity in equipment, and the emergence of a social archaeology that considers the service provider of either women and men. In Pursuit of Gender advances the research of gender in archaeology with specific facts, a world-wide scope and punctiliously reasoned conclusions that circulation into new territory, paving the best way in the direction of additional study in gender-based conception.
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Additional resources for In Pursuit of Gender: Worldwide Archaeological Approaches
2. Sex role—History. 3. Man-woman relationships—History. 4. Women—History. 5. Women, Prehistoric. 6. Feminist archaeology. I. , 1931–. II. Rosen-Ayalon, Myriam. III. Series. 48-1992. Table of Contents GENDER AND ARCHAEOLOGY SERIES Title Page Copyright Page Preface and Acknowledgments 1 - Introduction THE ROOTS OF GENDER ARCHAEOLOGY METHODS FOR STUDYING GENDER CHAPTER ARRANGEMENT SUMMARY I - GENDER IDEOLOGY 2 - Gender in the South Italian Neolithic: A Combinatory Approach INTRODUCTION THE NEOLITHIC OF SOUTHERN ITALY SOURCES FOR STUDYING GENDER IN THE NEOLITHIC OF SOUTHERN ITALY DISCUSSION CONCLUDING REMARKS 3 - Soul Birds and Heavenly Cows: Transforming Gender in Predynastic Egypt INTRODUCTION SEXING GOODS STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF GRAVE GOODS FIGURING SEX DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION: MATERIALITY, EMBODIMENT, AND MEANING EPILOGUE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 4 - Through the Looking Glass: Reflections on Mirrors, Gender, and Use among Nomads NOTES 5 - Ideology, Power, and Gender: Emergent Complex Society in Northeastern China HONGSHAN CULTURE HONGSHAN ECONOMY AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE IDEOLOGY OF THE HONGSHAN CULTURE CONCLUSION 6 - Beauty, Sexuality, Body Ornamentation, and Gender in Ancient Meso-America BODILY CUES AS MEDIA OF SOCIAL IDENTITY IN MESO-AMERICA A MESO-AMERICAN HISTORY FOR AZTEC PRACTICES BEAUTIFICATION, PERSUASIVENESS, AND PERFORMATIVE GENDER BODY ORNAMENTATION, BEAUTY, AND SEXUALITY IN MESO-AMERICA THE PUBLIC PERFORMANCE OF GENDER IN PRE-HISPANIC MESO-AMERICA 7 - Men, Women, and Eland: Hunting and Gender among the San of Southern Africa THEMES IN SAN EXPRESSIVE CULTURE PEOPLE OF THE EARLY RACE HUNTING AND ELAND HUNTING AND MARRIAGE KALAHARI LIFE HISTORIES KALAHARI TALK ROCK PAINTINGS PAINTING ELAND AND HUNTING PAINTING PEOPLE HUNTING AND GENDER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS II - GENDER ROLES 8 - The Impact of Women on Household Economies: A Maya Case Study HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIES, WOMEN’S LABOR, AND HOUSEHOLD SPACE THE SAN MATEO CASE METHODS AND EXPECTED RESULTS ANALYSIS DISCUSSION NOTES APPENDIX: VARIABLES CODED FOR THE CASE STUDY ANALYSIS 9 - Beyond Complementarity and Hierarchy: New Definitions for Archaeological Gender Relations INTRODUCTION: THE BINARY WORLD OF GENDER SYSTEMS CRITIQUE AND ALTERNATIVES TO BINARY GENDERS AND BINARY GENDER SYSTEMS ALTERNATIVE NONCATEGORICAL SCHEMES FOR STUDYING GENDER: STUDIES FROM YUTOPIAN LOCATING GENDER AT YUTOPIAN GENDER AS AN ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE IN YUTOPIAN EARLY FORMATIVE HOUSEHOLDS: WHICH CATEGORIES, IF ANY?
Gender ideology includes the ways that gender is conceptualized by the society as a whole and the ways that various subsets of the society understand gender. Women and men may be seen as substantially the same or as polar opposites. Men and women may have different gender ideologies or may share them. Thus, some women may have different beliefs than men about their own abilities, whereas other women may subscribe to the masculine view current in their culture. Such variations are often created by class differences, but other divisions, such as race or faction, can contribute to variations in gender beliefs as well.
I suggested that this might indicate that women participated in only the initial, more public stages of ritual at the site and that initiation into the more difficult and secret (literally “deeper” in this case) aspects of the cult would have been restricted to males. I used ethnographic analogy, particularly the rich record from New Guinea, to suggest that the rites in question were initiation rites into a secret male cult used by the ritual elders as a power system to control both women (by exclusion from the cult or at least from all but the early stages of initiation) and younger men (through control of the rituals themselves and of the sacred knowledge that was slowly and in piecemeal fashion imparted to them during initiation).