By Philippe Crabbé, Alan J. Holland, Lech Ryszkowski, L. Westra
This publication comprises the various papers which have been offered on the NATO technological know-how, Environmental defense, complicated study Workshop on "Implementing Ecological Integrity: Restoring neighborhood and worldwide Environmental and Human future health" held in Budapest from June 26 to July 1, 1999. All papers provided are summarized within the creation and, in certain cases, shorter models are released. A mUltidisciplinary center of yank and Western eu members had met over the preceeding years to debate the idea that of ecological integrity. The time period "ecological integrity" is located in environmental coverage records yet, commonly, isn't outlined. It competes with different fresh phrases, or environmental narratives, resembling "ecosystem well-being" and "sustainable improvement" and in addition with older ones corresponding to "conservation". for this reason, it truly is deemed vital not just to tackle the definitions of those ideas but in addition to determine no matter if their sensible implications fluctuate. in addition, it was once attention-grabbing to determine no matter if contributors from valuable and jap eu international locations (CEEC) and, extra often, from NATO accomplice international locations will be, first, aware of this idea and, moment, may carry varied perspectives of it. This explains the vast, albeit now not continually constant, variety oftopics that are coated during this publication. The middle crew realized that CEEC and different NATO companions contributors have been attentive to the idea that yet that they have been much less unique of human influence.
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Additional info for Implementing Ecological Integrity: Restoring Regional and Global Environmental and Human Health
Thus, at least in respect to some plant and animal communities, the impoverishment of biota due to intensive farming could be mitigated by altering the structure of the landscape through the introduction of a network of shelterbelts, meadows, small ponds and other refuge places. 3 percent of the total (Table 3). In the nearest national park (40 km distant) the number of vascular plants was estimated to be equal to 1120. Bearing in mind that the national park has more habitats than the landscape under study, one may conclude that the mosaic agricuIturallandscape has a very rich plant community.
Very important also is the recent knowledge of interactions between organisms and their evolution (especially the new possibilities of genetic manipulation created by the enormous progress of biochemical genetics). Studies on energy flows and material cycles have appeared in many published books, proceedings of conferences and papers. Examples include the following: Odum 1953, Rauner 1972, Monteith 1975, Golley et a11975, French 1979, Reichle 1981, Bolin et a11983, Schlesinger 1991, White et a11992, Tissen 1995, Ryszkowski et al1996 and many others.
Still, it is true that the overwhelming number of studies dealt with the influence of environmental factors on organisms. An explicit statement of the need to integrate biotic and abiotic processes in order to understand ecosystem function was expressed by Tansley (1935), who defined ecosystems as: 'the whole system (in the sense of physics) including not only the organism complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming what we call the environment ofbiome .... It is the systems so formed which, from the point of view of the ecologists, are the basic units of nature on the face of the earth'.