By Lorne G. Everett
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Additional resources for Groundwater Monitoring Handbook for Coal and Oil Shale Development
Gypsum crystals (selenite; CaS04-2H20) and soluble sulfate salts are the major sources of sulfur in the overburden. Sulfate concentrations were found to range from 20 to 40 meqlliter, primarily in the form of selenite. 12 ppm. 8 ppm. 1 ppm for all samples taken at Wyodack. Chemical analyses of partings and interburden have been more limited than those for overburden, but those that have been done tend to confirm that the same elements are present. S. Bureau of Land Management (1974) states that chemical analyses were run on two samples of parting material between coal seams at the Carter North Rawhide mine.
Within the project area (Figure 4), several coal mines at various levels of production were identified. The majority of the examples used in this book are taken from the seven mines identified in Figure 4. The majority of the potential pollution problems associated with coal strip mining were assumed to be represented by the seven mines; therefore, the monitoring recommendations have been generalized to cover all western coal strip mine development. GENERIC MONITORING STEPS Before evaluating monitoring needs for individual sources of potential pollution from surface coal mining activities, Steps 1, 2, and 4 of the methodology must be addressed.
Analyses of column leach extracts using distilled water are recommended at this time although more research is needed in this area. of overburden stockpiled by direct Step 3 . Identify Potential Pollutants--coal, Coal Refuse, and Coaly Waste One of the characteristics of the project area coals is the low sulfur content. Elevated concentrations of sulfides and organic sulfur, however, are commonly associated with carbonaceous materials such as coal stringers, carbonaceous shale, and top or bottom coal that is wasted (personal communication, N.