By David L. Strayer
Pearly mussels (Unionoidea) stay in lakes, rivers, and streams worldwide. those bivalves play very important roles in freshwater ecosystems and have been as soon as either culturally and economically invaluable as assets of nutrients, pearls, and mother-of-pearl. this day, besides the fact that, hundreds and hundreds of species of those mussels are extinct or endangered. David L. Strayer offers a severe synthesis of the criteria that regulate the distribution and abundance of pearly mussels. utilizing empirical analyses and versions, he assesses the results of dispersal, habitat caliber, availability of fish hosts, enough nutrition, predators, and parasites. He additionally addresses conservation matters that practice to different population of unpolluted waters worldwide and different urgent concerns in modern ecology.
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Extra resources for Freshwater Mussel Ecology: A Multifactor Approach to Distribution and Abundance (Freshwater Ecology Series)
Note that the effects of reduced migration rates are disproportionately severe for species that are rare initially (cf. Fig. , the contour lines in Fig. 12 are not evenly spaced). This effect alone can be expected to cause a substantial extinction debt on unionoid populations (and perhaps species), and is consistent with the empirical analysis of Fagan et al. (2002) showing that fishes with highly fragmented ranges (and presumably low migration rates) had high rates of local extirpation. figure 12.
Human activities such as forest clearing, row crop agriculture, urbanization, dams (and dam removal), water diversions, riparian habitat destruc- 50 t h e m o n s t e r ’s pa r t s : h a b i tat figure 19. Relationship between sediment stability and mussel distribution in two New York streams. The left-hand panels (a-c) show data from Webatuck Creek and the right-hand panels (d-f) show data from the Neversink River. Panels (a) and (d) show mussel densities (number/m2) the summer before a 5- to 6-year flood, and panels (b) and (e) show mussel densities the summer after the flood.
Although oxygen depletion from human activities has largely been controlled in the developed world, it still occurs on occasion. More importantly, mussel communities that were eliminated by past episodes of low oxygen probably have not fully recovered in many places because of inadequate dispersal from remaining source populations through highly fragmented drainage systems. Although pearly mussels have massive shells of calcium carbonate, they can survive at surprisingly low concentrations of dissolved calcium, through a combination of efficient calcium uptake from food and water and a shell structure that resists dissolution (McMahon and Bogan 2001).