Download Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity by David W. Pfennig, Karin S. Pfennig PDF

April 5, 2017 | Evolution | By admin | 0 Comments

By David W. Pfennig, Karin S. Pfennig

Evolutionary biology has lengthy sought to give an explanation for how new qualities and new species come up. Darwin maintained that festival is vital to realizing this biodiversity and held that choice performing to lessen pageant reasons rivals to turn into more and more various, thereby selling new features and new species. regardless of Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s function in diversification continues to be arguable and principally underappreciated.

In their artificial and provocative ebook, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig discover competition's function in producing and holding biodiversity. The authors speak about how choice can reduce source pageant or high priced reproductive interactions by means of selling trait evolution via a method often called personality displacement. They additional describe personality displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then examine personality displacement’s myriad downstream results, starting from shaping ecological groups to selling new characteristics and new species or even fueling large-scale evolutionary developments. Drawing on a variety of stories from usual populations, and written for a extensive viewers, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to encourage destiny study into personality displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.

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Additional resources for Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity (Organisms and Environments)

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By removing adult Semibalanus from the middle intertidal zone, Connell showed that adult Chthamalus could survive there, even though they are normally not present in the middle intertidal zone (Connell 1961a, b). He concluded that Semibalanus competitively excluded Chthamalus from this portion of its habitat. In addition to these controlled experiments, competitive exclusion has been inferred in natural populations of many species, when species are absent from areas where they should occur had heterospecific competitors not been present (for classic examples, see Lack 1945; MacArthur 1958; Hairston 1987).

2C). Gause (1934) concluded that P. caudatum was outcompeted for food by P. aurelia, and thereby driven extinct. WHY CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT OCCURS Ɠ 33 Competitive exclusion has also been demonstrated in natural populations. A prime example comes from Connell’s (1961a, b) work. Connell sought to identify the factors that govern the local distributions of two species of barnacles, Chthamalus stellatus and Semibalanus balanoides, along the rocky intertidal coast of Scotland. Connell observed that the larvae of these species co-occur in both the upper and middle intertidal zones.

Species sorting was first anticipated by Rensch (1933; cited in Mayr 1947) and occurs when species that just happen to differ in resource use are more likely to coexist than those that do not differ. Species sorting can arise either through the differential invasion into a habitat of species that happen to differ or through the differential extinction of species that happen to be too similar to coexist. For example, each of the small islands of the Lesser Antilles harbors either one or two species of Anolis lizards (Losos 1992).

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