By Pierre-P. Grassé
Evolution of residing Organisms: proof for a brand new idea of Transformation discusses conventional interpretations of evolution with a brand new assumption. The ebook offers a rational and normal account of genuine evolutionary phenomena in response to paleontology and molecular organic information. The textual content studies organic evolution from the easy to the advanced or innovative and regressive evolution. the writer explains the looks of sorts of association from Captorhinomorphs to Pelycosaurs to the Theriodonts— from which the mammals arose. He additionally explains that during the evolution to mammals, the transformation of the Theriodonts involved basically the skeleton, muscle tissues, dentition, and never the mind. He cites the case of the Perissodactyls to illustrate. the writer additionally asserts that paleontology and molecular biology can clarify the mechanism of evolution with out even detailing the reasons of orientations of lineages, of the finalities of constructions, of residing services, and of cycles. yet this technique will contain metaphysics. This publication may be liked by means of anthropologists, researcher and scientists excited about zoology, paleontology, genetics and biochemistry.
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Extra resources for Evolution of Living Organisms. Evidence for a New Theory of Transformation
The variations undergone by the theriodont reptiles accumulate with the passing of time (this idea is expressed by the term "tend to"). 4. The variations are complementary and when they appear induce coordinated variations, such as the development of the dentary with concomitant transformation of the jaw muscles. 5. The variations which are observed in the theriodont lines are orderly. They never occur in a chaotic manner. 6. Transformations in lines and sublines occur very gradually, as a continuous process, without radical changes.
3. The arrangement of the bones is modified by size changes, losses, and fusions. 4. In mammals, the parietals and frontals tend to form the major part of the skull roof; they lie between the temporal jaw muscle and the brain, thus completely shutting off the neurocranium. The occipital condyle becomes double. The buccal cavity is transversely partitioned by a secondary palate*; the teeth are differentiated into three categories, from T h e secondary palate (or secondary roof of the mouth) is formed by four apophyses arranged in horizontal laminas sent out toward the internal face by the upper maxillary A Comparison of the Characters of Mammalian Reptiles and Early Mammals 47 front to back, the incisors, canines, and postcanines.
The Captorhinomorpha radiated into several lines whose relationships and affinities are difficult to define clearly. We will only concern ourselves with the Synapsida, characterized by the presence of a single temporal fenestra in each side of the skull that is very similar to the fenestra of the Captorhinomorpha and remains archaic in structure. The order Pelycosauria, or Theromorpha, is placed at the base of the synapsid phylogenetic tree; pelycosaurs appeared during the upper Carboniferous, flourished during the lower Permian, began declining from the middle Permian, and became extinct during the lower Triassic.