By Marjan Temovski
This thesis addresses karst improvement in a terrain characterised through a hugely complicated geological and geomorphological evolution. It tackles the level and complexity of either epigenic and hypogenic karst improvement, in keeping with morphological analyses of caves, mixed with analyses and datations of cave sediments and their correlation to neighborhood geological and geomorphological evolution.
Hypogenic karst registered is principally the results of hydrothermal speleogenesis as a result of elevated geothermal gradient in reference to close by Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic facilities, with prevalence of sulfuric acid speleogenesis and ghost-rock weathering because of neighborhood geological or lithological keep watch over. Epigenic speleogenesis is strongly managed through base point oscillations, with additionally examples of deep phreatic (now fossil) caves attached to nearby base point upward push, and per-ascensum speleogenesis.
Another vital discovering is the constraining of the timing of Mariovo Lake draining within the Pleistocene, a major occasion with the intention to comprehend the geomorphological evolution in Macedonia, because it ended in the onset of fluvial improvement and incision of valleys, shaping lots of the current morphology.
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Additional resources for Evolution of Karst in the Lower Part of Crna Reka River Basin
2011): a Mechanical weathering resulting in erosional channels; b chemical dissolution of well-cemented carbonate conglomerates with karren (true karstiﬁcation); c karren with the non-soluble components that protrude during karstiﬁcation Goeppert et al. (2011) describe the combined action of mechanical weathering and chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks, with the later mostly prevailing, as the mechanism responsible for karstiﬁcation of the Hochgrat site in the Molasse Basin. This was noted in the development of surface features such as karren as well as on cave walls.
Downstream from Podot locality there are travertine deposits all along the 350-m terrace. Podot travertines are likely of younger Pleistocene age than the higher travertines, being deposited in a paludal environment in a stable period after aggradation in Crna Reka Valley. The travertines at the 350-m Karši Podot terrace are covering alluvial deposits, later cut by Karši Podot Cave.
2009c, d) (Fig. 6). Identiﬁcation of hypogenic caves based only on morphology can be sometimes ambiguous. Therefore, the presence of some characteristic deposits associated with Fig. 6 Conceptual model of the hypogenic cave patterns (Audra et al. 1 Concepts 33 sulfuric acid speleogenesis, or thermal carbonic speleogenesis, can help in interpreting hypogenic origin. Many known hydrothermal caves are lined with scalenohedral (dogtooth spar) calcite crystals (Dublyansky 2013). Gypsum deposits, found as replacement crusts, are indicative of sulfuric acid speleogenesis.