By Martin Carr, Sandra L. Baldauf (auth.), Stefanie Pöggeler, Johannes Wöstemeyer (eds.)
Based on series analyses of many alternative genes, the earlier decade has supplied us with a profound wisdom of fungal systematics and phylogeny. additionally, a few sequences of entire fungal genomes were pointed out and a number of other others will quickly persist with. during this quantity, prime specialists tackle questions about the starting place of the fungal nation and fungal evolution at a degree of analytical refinement that hasn't ever been attainable ahead of. the next significant facets are highlighted: evolutionary roots of fungi; evolution of signaling in fungi and fungal-like organisms; evolution of mutualistic structures and metabolism in fungi; and evolutionary mechanisms and trends.
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Additional info for Evolution of Fungi and Fungal-Like Organisms
The length of the dispersal stage in nudiforms is considerably shorter than that in other choanoflagellates and cells rapidly settle to produce their lorica. In contract, in tectiform species, the entire set of lorica strips is The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi pre-assembled so that the daughter cell erects its own lorica immediately after separating from the parent cell. Therefore free-swimming juvenile dispersal cells are never produced (Leadbeater 1979). Acanthoecidae is the only choanoflagellate family whose members are exclusively marine (Pettitt et al.
It also probably possessed a flagellum surrounded by a collar of microvilli that would have been employed for filter feeding. Since a sedentary lifestyle appears to have been ancestral in choanoflagellates (Carr et al. 2008a) and, since adult poriferans are also sedentary, the last ancestor of both choanoflagellates and Metazoa was probably also a sedentary organism employing a flagellate swimming stage for dispersal. The ability to form colonies is present in two of the three major clades of choanoflagellates (Carr et al.
2007; Medina et al. 2001; Wallberg et al. 2004). Recent work by Matus et al. (2006) showed that cnidarians possess many of the developmental genes previously thought to be unique to Bilateria, leading them to speculate that cnidarians were ancestrally bilaterally symmetrical and have subsequently evolved a more simplified body plan. B. Bilateria The monophyletic lineage Bilateria is further subdivided into the deuterostomes and protostomes. The defining characteristics of these two subdivisions are the fates of the primary embryonic opening (blastopore).