By Gottfried Punz
This paintings covers the prestige of developed 3G cellular community expertise, as represented through 3GPP’s SAE/LTE procedure, from the "inside" of standardization. It provides architectures, underlying ideas and information of techniques on numerous degrees to advertise readers’ figuring out of the ensuing layout and requisites. feedback on historical past, detours, and possible choices that weren't pursued supply extra insights for non-experts. the writer attracts on his personal notes and observations from standardization conferences, on-line discussions and corporate inner analyses, in addition to reviews and briefings from colleagues around the globe, making sure that readers obtain a balanced view and deeper understanding.
Gottfried Punz is senior researcher on the community study department of NEC Laboratories Europe and has been lively in 3GPP standardization considering the fact that 2005. He has contributed to the architectural and protocol layout of the developed 3GPP method, with specific concentrate on CS fallback, domestic cells and integration with non-3GPP accesses.
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Additional resources for Evolution of 3G Networks: The Concept, Architecture and Realization of Mobile Networks Beyond UMTS
8 there is no standardized way to guarantee the preservation of the Serving GW address in all mobility scenarios). The UE is then preferably handled locally for mobility across non-3GPP accesses in the VPLMN (at least for the user plane). The architecture in Figure 3-13 (for the non-roaming case) enables optimized handovers by two specialized interfaces: S101 for handover control ±(preregistration and signaling for handover preparation) and S103 for packet forwarding in downlink during handover from E-UTRAN to HRPD, in order to minimize packet loss.
The comparison reveals that E-UTRAN is comprised of only one type of nodes, namely Evolved Node B (eNodeB), and that the variety of interconnections has shrunk to a minimum. eNodeB is the radio base station and transmits/receives via its antenna in an area (cell), limited by physical factors (signal strength, interference conditions, radio wave propagation conditions). It has logical interfaces X2 with neighbouring eNodeBs and with the EPC via S1. e. 2). The reference point towards the UE (which comprises the radio link LQWHUIDFHDQGDPRELOHQHWZRUNUHODWHGSURWRFROVWDFNLVWHUPHG³/7(-Uu´WRLndicate that it differes from the legacy counterpart Uu.
2. onto the PDN GW: in this case the unchanged, legacy reference point Gn (in case of roaming it would be Gp) is reused between SGSN and PDN GW, for both control and user plane. The advantage of this usage is that SGSN can be pre-Rel. 8. On the other hand it bears some restriction with respect to IP versions, handover and S5/S8 protocol, as explained below. 2): ± inter core network node signalling for mobility between 3GPP access networks (terminating S3); ± SGSN selection for handovers to 2G or 3G 3GPP access networks.