By Hidefumi Imura, Miranda A. Schreurs
Scanned and OCRed book
Japanese environmental administration sort is in lots of methods detailed from that present in Europe or america. there's much less emphasis on litigation, extra emphasis on administrative advice and huge use of voluntary mechanisms for coverage implementation. This quantity considers what elements can have contributed to Japan's really winning efforts at facing serious commercial toxins and difficulties linked to swift urbanization. The publication introduces Japan's environmental background, its key environmental rules and the forces that experience pushed Japan to introduce those environmental rules and courses. It additionally examines many of the formal and casual institutional mechanisms and coverage tools which have been brought during the last numerous a long time to enforce pollutants keep an eye on and effort conseration. The authors finish through placing Japan's environmental coverage reports in comparative standpoint and contemplating what important classes might be drawn from the japanese adventure for constructing international locations. delivering an in depth research of environmental rules and coverage tools in Japan through top specialists within the box, this booklet might be of serious curiosity to scholars of environmental coverage and politics and policymakers thinking about environmental defense in Asia.
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Extra resources for Environmental Policy In Japan
The industrial policies of MITI worked effectively in helping the country reconstruct its destroyed economy (Sakaiya 2000). Favorable international conditions helped Japan's post-war economic growth. Japan benefited from market globalization and the movement towards a free trade regime. Japan, moreover, was able to enjoy an abundant oil supply from the Middle East and other parts of the world at prices that were cheaper than for domestic coal. Due to the loss of old industrial facilities in the war, Japanese industry had to start again from scratch, but this also meant that they were able to build state-of-the-art production systems that were highly efficient for the time.
Increased domestic labor costs and the appreciation of the yen pushed a number of manufacturing industries to shift their production bases abroad. Japan's foreign direct investment in Southeast Asia and China increased at the beginning of the 1980s. Japanese foreign investment has at times been criticized for being a form of pollution export. Japanese industries have been criticized for moving polluting factories abroa^. Although the criticism may not be completely justified, in 1991, Keidanren (the Federation of Economic Organizations), which is the most influential horizontal business association in Japan, issued guidelines for the overseas operations of Japanese business firms (Keidanren 1991b).
Conditions became so bad that in 1967 inhabitants of the most polluted district filed a damage suit against six companies of the industrial complex. The case was concluded in 1972 when the court handed down a decision that the defendant companies were guilty of illegal actions (Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program 1990, Annex 10). This event facilitated the creation of the health damage compensation scheme formally started in 1974. This compensation system is discussed further below. Minamata mercury poisoning Internationally, the best known of Japan's pollution diseases is Minamata mercury poisoning.