By Thomas E. Martin, Deborah M. Finch
An bold, complete evaluation of the present prestige of neotropical migratory birds within the united states, and the equipment and methods for holding migrant populations. This ebook covers the complete scope of the topic, with chapters reviewing and assessing the themes written as consensus records through numerous of the major staff. Contents contain inhabitants tendencies, differences due to the season, habitat specifications in the course of migration, affects and results of silviculture and agricultural practices, panorama ecology, habitat grazing results, and single-species as opposed to multiple-species ways.
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Extra resources for Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds: A Synthesis and Review of Critical Issues
6. Geissler, P. , and J. R. Sauer. 1990. Topics in route regression analysis. Pp. 54 57 in Survey designs and statistical methods for the estimation of avian population trends (J. R. Sauer and S. Droege, cds). US Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(1). Graber, R. , and J. W. Graber. 1963. A comparative study of bird populations in Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956 1958. Illinois Natural Hist. Surv. Bull. 28(3):383 528. Griscom, L. 1923. Birds of the New York City region. Amcr. Mus. Natural Hist. Handbook Ser.
To avoid this bias, stratification within states (or provinces) is necessary, and regional estimates of trends and relative abundances can be calculated as area-weighted averages of the state-stratum average trends. Temporal Differences in Sample Intensity Most BBS routes have not been surveyed each year of the 1966-1991 period. The survey was not established in the western United States and southern Canada until 1968, and gaps occur in coverage on most routes. , Geissler and Noon 1981, Geissler and Sauer 1990, James et al.
Several variations on this general approach have been used on BBS data (Dolbeer and Stehn 1979, Sauer and Geissler 1990, Moses and Rabinowitx. 1990). These models tend to be very complex when factors are included to accommodate year, route, observer, and area effects, and the models are only infrequently used (Sauer and Geissler 1990). , Bohning-Gaese et al. 1992). Unfortunately, indices estimated without observer effects tend to contain additional variability and produce positive bias in trend estimates, making them imprecise and inaccurate.