By Yoseph Bar-Cohen, Kris Zacny
Uniquely entire and recent, this publication covers terrestrial in addition to extraterrestrial drilling and excavation, combining the expertise of drilling with the state-of-the-art in robotics. The authors come from and most sensible rating public and company study associations and supply the following real-life examples, difficulties, strategies and case stories, subsidized through colour photos throughout.
The result's vital for oil businesses and all scientists fascinated about planetary examine with robot probes.
With a foreword by means of Harrison "Jack" Schmitt -- the 1st geologist to drill at the moon.
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Additional info for Drilling in Extreme Environments: Penetration and Sampling on Earth and other Planets
Gregory H. Peters, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. Sylvia L. Miller, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. , 2003). 16 Petroleum drill bits are produced in various shapes depending on the formation that needs to be penetrated. From left to right: surface set diamond bit; PDC bit; tungsten carbide tricone bit; and tricone milled tooth bit with different teeth shapes and sizes. 6 Mounted test specimen and a cross-section of a triaxial cell. 17 Some stress definitions commonly used in petroleum geomechanics.
The development of pneumatic drills dates back to Samuel Ingersolls invention in 1871 and it made a major impact on the ability to drill. The electric drills in the past century have revolutionized our ability to penetrate tough materials on demand. The invention of the steam engine in the eighteenth century had an enormous impact on the capability to drill on large scales and with it came a surge in demand for coal to fuel steam engines. One of the most extracted materials is coal, which is also the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth: its predominant use has been for producing energy in the form of heat.
The use of metallic tools for the penetration of objects probably started in the Bronze Age when tools were made in the shape of an arrow that consisted of two distinct cutting edges. The use of bow drills dates back to the ancient Egyptians (3150–31 BC). As far back as 2550–2315 BC, the Egyptians may have used diamond drilling tools for the construction of the pyramids, and between 600 and 260 BC, the Chinese drilled holes up to 35 cm (14 in) in diameter to depths exceeding 600 m ($2000 ft). About 1000 years ago, in 1126 AD, Carthusian monks used a percussive technique to drill for water, reaching a depth of around 300 m (1000 ft) (De Villiers, 2001).