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Developmental Psychopathology, quantity three, threat, disease, and model presents a lifestyles span developmental viewpoint on "high-risk" stipulations and psychological problems. additionally, it examines developmental pathways to resilient variation within the face of adversity.
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Extra info for DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY. Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation
Sometimes social workers undermine informal helpers by criticizing them or trying to assume their roles. But the integration of formal and informal helping is essential to promote the engagement of recipients in social support interventions and to provide a foundation for enduring assistance. Many well-meaning social support interventions fail because they do not sufficiently incorporate the natural helping networks of family members, resulting in assistance that is limited in time, scope, and impact.
Receiving assistance can be humiliating and stigmatizing, especially when the need for assistance derives from inadequacies in the recipient (such as poor parenting, substance abuse, or inadequate personal or financial management) rather than from broader, impersonal circumstances (such as an economic recession or a natural disaster; Heller & Rook, 2001). Receiving help can also create feelings of failure, indebtedness, and inferiority, especially when assistance cannot be repaid, because of cultural norms of equity and reciprocity (Greenberg & Westcott, 1983).
The work of Shaw and his colleagues has shown how the early development of conduct problems in young children derives from the interaction of the child’s temperamental vulnerability with maternal rejection and depression, parental conflict, and other indicators of family difficulty (Owens & Shaw, 2003; Shaw, Miles, Ingoldsby, & Nagin, 2003). Research on maternal depression shows, as earlier indicated, how the family environment presents children with overwhelming emotional demands deriving from the caregiver’s sadness, irritability, helplessness, and guiltinducing behavior, which contributes to children’s enmeshment in the emotional problems of the adult and their own vulnerability to internalizing problems (Ashman & Dawson, 2002; Cummings & Davies, 1994, 1996; Zahn-Waxler & Kochanska, 1990).