By Aurel Croissant, David Kuehn, Philip Lorenz, Paul W. Chambers (auth.)
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Extra resources for Democratization and Civilian Control in Asia
1 Elite recruitment The area of elite recruitment deﬁnes the rules, criteria, and processes for the recruitment, selection, and legitimation of the holders of political ofﬁce. The actor who controls this area has the power to deﬁne ‘who rules and who decides who rules’ (Taylor, 2003: 7). Following Robert Dahl (1971: 4–6), these rules and procedures can be analytically disaggregated into two theoretical dimensions: (1) the rules of competition, that is, the degree of openness of the political processes, and (2) participation, that is, the inclusiveness of the political competition.
Partial regime D prevents the abuse of state power and ensures interagency supervision through institutional checks-and-balances between the legislative, executive, and judicative branches. The institutionalization of ‘horizontal accountability’ (O’Donnell, 1994) safeguards against the abuse of ‘democratically’ generated power and monitors the lawfulness of governmental actions. • The institutions of partial regime E guarantee that the ‘effective power to govern’ rests with the elected authorities alone and prevent political actors not subject to the democratic process from exercising political decision-making power.
1 Areas and indicators of civilian control Occasional and isolated de facto influence Active duty officers are eligible in a few individual cases. 1 (Continued) Civilians are able to monitor and audit military activities to guarantee the implementation of their decisions Civilians have full authority over decisions about military organization the rules of conduct, and the limits of military autonomy, and provide the guidelines for the armed forces’ corporate identity High No civilian oversight; military completely autonomous in internal affairs The military alone defines military organization and determines the scope of its professional autonomy Civilian decision making is limited to certain aspects of military organization due to lack of institutionalized channels, or the military exerts veto power over decisions Military does not implement civilian decisions, or civilians lack institutionalized oversight mechanisms Low Medium Degree of civilian control 32 Conceptualizing Civilian Control of the Military 33 policy therefore requires that the military have neither the prerogative to make decisions about the allocation of the government budget, especially the size of the defense budget, nor the ability to contest civilian decisions, for example the decision to prosecute human rights violations committed by members of the armed forces.