By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik
Cooperative habit has been one of many enigmas of evolutionary conception because the days of Charles Darwin. The contributions to this e-book research the numerous aspects of cooperative habit in primates and people as the various world's best specialists overview and summarize the state-of-the-art of theoretical and empirical reports of cooperation. This booklet is hence the 1st to bridge the space among parallel examine in primatology and stories of people. Comparative as this strategy is, it highlights either universal ideas and facets of human distinctiveness with recognize to cooperative habit.
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Additional resources for Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution
Hamadryas baboons typically form one-male units, which are clustered together in clans, and clans are clustered in bands (Stammbach 1987). ‘Leader’ males are sometimes succeeded and subsequently tolerated by males who are likely to be their sons (Sigg et al. 1982). Although one-male units spend much of their time near one another, leaders of one-male units rarely attempt to take females from other males in their clans and are quite tolerant of the males in their clans. Based on phenotypic similarities, males in the same band are thought to be related (Stammbach 1987).
In order to examine the evolutionary processes underlying food sharing more carefully, Bélisle & Chapais (2001) conducted a series of experiments on Japanese macaques in the laboratory. In these experiments, food could be monopolized by one individual. The frequency of co-feeding, or food sharing, increased as maternal relatedness increased (Bélisle & Chapais 2001), but the extent of nepotism was limited. Females shared selectively with their daughters, granddaughters and sisters, but not their aunts or nieces.
How- 2 Practicing Hamilton’s rule: kin selection in primate groups ever, in nonexperimental settings, associations between grooming and support have been harder to find (reviewed by Schino 2001), producing some skepticism about the importance and regularity of this process in nature (Henzi & Barrett 1999). However, there are several reasons to suspect that even if females do trade grooming for support, this is not sufficient to fully explain the patterns of grooming and affiliation that we see in nature.