By Ruut Veenhoven (auth.)
This e-book is ready the measure to which individuals enjoy existence: briefly 'happiness'. It attempts to spot stipulations that desire a good appreciation of lifestyles. hence it hopes to shed extra mild on a longstanding and interesting ques tion and, most likely, to steer makes an attempt to enhance the human lot. throughout the previous many years an increasing number of investigations have handled this factor. consequently there's now a large physique of information. but it's really tricky to make feel of it. there's a clutter of theories, recommendations and symptoms, and plenty of of the findings appear to be contradictory. This publication makes an attempt to convey a few order into the sector. The research attracts on a listing of empirical investigations which concerned legitimate symptoms of happiness; 245 reviews are concerned, which jointly yield a few 4000 observations: for the most half correlational ones. those effects are provided in complete aspect within the at the same time released 'Databook of Happiness' (Veenhoven 1984). the current quantity distils conclusions from that wealth of information. It attempts to evaluate the truth price of the findings and the measure to which correlations mirror the stipulations of happiness instead of the implications of it. It then makes an attempt to put the scattered findings in context. As such, this paintings isn't a standard learn of literature on happiness.
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Extra info for Conditions of Happiness
Several investigators noted a high stability through time. 43 between a self-rating of happiness and a retest after eight months. e. 'not too happy' at time one and 'very happy' at time two, or the reverse. Further results of this kind have been reported by Bradburn (1969:43/77), Campbell et al. (1975:66/185) and Andrews & Withey (1976: 14/15). Section 8/2c reports several investigations covering longer periods. These found evaluations of life to be fairly stable as well. Happiness was further shown to be largely independent of fluctuations in political and economic trends.
The definition of Wessman & Ricks characterizes happiness as a product of thinking. It describes happiness as a 'conception'. Similar definitions were advanced by authors who use the term 'happiness' interchangeably with 'life-satisfaction'; Lemon et al. (1972:513). This time I will not opt for one of these alternatives. In reality, cognition and affect are mostly highly interwoven. Hence I think it wise to conceive happiness as an attitude with both affective and cognitive components. This view will be presented in more detail in the following section.
The proposed conceptualization can add the following three points: First it gives a more specific meaning to the terms 'affective component' and 'cognitive component'. It provides formal definitions for otherwise ambiguous statistical constructs. Secondly it suggests that happiness does not simply fall into two components, but that there remains an indivisable element: the 'overall' judgement which embodies both aspect appraisals. The phenomenon Andrews & McKennel refer to 'as the 'cognitive component' of happiness (the variance in self-ratings after ABS has been checked) covers in fact both 'contentment' and that 'overall' judgement.