By Kenneth Dyson, Peter Humphreys, Ralph Negrine
Murdoch, Maxwell, Hersant, Berlusconi, Bertelsmann, Springer and Turner ... within the Eighties new actors emerged to take advantage of the possibilities in eu broadcasting, supplied through the recent applied sciences of satellite tv for pc and cable. Dramatic political, financial and cultural effects have been promised and are already being addressed through public coverage. This ebook analyses and translates the improvement of regulatory guidelines in Western Europe based on those new phenomena.
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Extra resources for Broadcasting and New Media Policies in Western Europe
Thirdly, in certain countries the press has been a highly profitable sphere of enterprise. Thus in West Germany the average profitability of the press has far exceeded that of industry as a whole. As a consequence, there has long been an active search for new investment markets. In fact, in West Germany publishers began their quest to diversify into the electronic media as far back as the 1950s. However, until the recent combination of new media development and political and legal changes (outlined by Humphreys in this volume), these attempts came up against the obstacle of the 22 The Context of New Media Politics entrenched public-service broadcasting monopoly.
5 per cent increase in that of television. 4 per cent. 14 However, in many other West European countries, during this same five-year period there had been significant changes in favour of television at the expense of the press. This trend was most noticeable in the case of Italy where the decline of the share taken by the press and the rise in that taken by television was spectacular. During the years 1978–83 a steep decline in the share of national advertising accruing to the press was almost completely counter-balanced by a dramatic rise in the share taken by television.
Much of the pessimism generated by international developments in broadcasting and new media was the product of expectations generated by rather narrow conceptualisations of cultural issues. Rhetoric tended to focus on the demise of ‘European cultural identity’ in the face of American ‘cultural imperialism’ and on the spread of American ‘coca-cola’ civilisation. Serious cultural issues are posed for regulators and broadcasters; variety of programming, not least in terms of territorial interest, is one such issue.