By L. Pitaevskii, S. Stringari
This booklet is an introductory textual content to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensation. This phenomenon, first expected by means of Einstein in 1925 has been learned experimentally in 1995 in a notable sequence of experiments whose value has been famous through the award of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. The condensate is de facto a brand new nation of subject, the place quantum-mechanical wave capabilities of atoms behave as coherent topic waves within the comparable method as coherent mild waves with regards to a laser. The authors offer a theoretical presentation of the most ideas underlying the physics of dilute atomic gases in stipulations of super low temperatures the place quantum results play a very important function. the most attempt is dedicated to dialogue of the proper theoretical features exhibited through those systms, comparable to the idea that of order parameter, lengthy variety order, superfluidity and coherence. The mathematical formalism is gifted in a kind handy for useful use. The ebook develops the idea of Bose gases ranging from the pioneering Bogoliubov procedure and offers specified emphasis to the hot actual beneficial properties exhibited by means of non-uniform gases that are produced within the fresh experiments with magnetic and optical traps. those gains contain the selection of the equilibrium profiles, the collective oscillations, the mechanism of the growth of the gasoline after liberating the catch, the interference styles bought by means of overlapping condensates, the rotational houses revealing the results of superfluidity the Josephson-like phenomena assocaited with the coherence of the part, the past suggest box phenomena exhibited via quantum gases in stipulations of lowered dimensionality. The e-book additionally discusses the alaogies and ameliorations with the physics of ""classical"" superfluids like liquid helium and introduces the various significant good points of trapped Fermi gases at low temperature, declaring the implications of superfluidity.
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The tethered system is treated as a solid body in stable motion. Oscillations that may occur in the Copyright ©1989 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved. "Computing Center. 40 OSCILLATIONS OF A TETHERED SATELLITE 41 system are considered as undesirable phenomena because they may result in destruction of the system. In this paper the tethered satellite is treated as a passive object that may give useful information when observed from the orbiter. Imagine first that the satellite has become free at an initial time.
1: H2O (GIOTTO Ref. 2, pp. 2: CO2 (GIOTTO; Ref. 2, pp. 326-329); 5: ions (V-l, V-2; Ref. 6, pp. 914-920); 6: ions (GIOTTO; Ref. 8, pp. 199-202); 7: ions (SUISEI; Ref. 8, pp. 7180); 8: ions (GIOTTO; Ref. 8, pp. 71-80); 9: photodestruction scale length for H2O (GIOTTO; Ref. 2, pp. 326-329]); 10: photodestruction scale length for H2O after model (Ref. 4); 11: shock front; 12: cometopause; 13: boundary of free molecular scattering gas; 14: cold cometary plasma boundary; 15: ionopause, H: dust envelope.
AmnHm(^L°n(c*} (28) m=0n=0 and M N = 7r-3/sexp(-cj|2)u;(c;2) £ £ bmnHm(c$Mn(c**) m=0n=0 (29) 12 B. SHIZGAL AND D. 7443z/, 6 Model B<6> Model C<6) St. Maurice and Schunk, (Ref. 5) The expansion coefficents are determined with the explicit definitions for the polynomials, that is, m k=0 rn 1=0 and With the orthonormality of the polynomials, we have, for example, X ^ X ^ A " T> iJkc'2t\ (rpk+2t /rrtkrp2f\l/2 ('%'%} k=01=0 where the temperature factor in Eq. (33) converts from the use of T\\ and TJL to T in the definition of reduced speed.