By Ramesh Chander Kuhad, Ajay Singh
Various kinds of secondary agriculture and forestry wastes symbolize important source fabrics for constructing exchange power as biofuels and different price extra items resembling sugars, phenols, furans, natural acids, enzymes and digestible animal feed and so forth. although, if no longer controlled adequately, waste materials and environmental contaminants generated by means of a variety of industries reminiscent of nutrition and feed, pulp and paper and fabric could lead on to serious environmental pollutants. The strength, nutrition and feed call for necessitate constructing uncomplicated and economically conceivable applied sciences for environmental administration and source restoration. Microorganisms and their enzymes give a contribution considerably in usage of plant residues, source restoration and at last in pollutants mitigation.
“Biotechnology for Environmental administration and source restoration” provides a complete overview of chosen examine issues in a compendium of sixteen chapters relating to environmental pollutants regulate and constructing biotechnologies in agro-ecosystem administration and bioconversion of agro-residues (lignocellulosics) into biofuels, animal feed and paper and so forth. This e-book offers a necessary source for reference and textual content fabric to graduate and postgraduate scholars, researchers, scientists operating within the sector of microbiology, biotechnology, and environmental technological know-how and engineering.
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Extra resources for Biotechnology for Environmental Management and Resource Recovery
18 Fig. 2 The catalytic cycle of MnP (Redrawn from Wariishi et al. 1989; Hofrichter 2002) The catalytic cycle of MnP is reviewed in detail by Kuhad et al. (1997), and is very similar to that of LiP, differing only in that compound II is readily reduced by Mn2+ to its native form (Fig. 2) (Wariishi et al. 1989; Sánchez 2009). The phenoxyl radicals formed subsequently cleave Ca-Ca or alkyl-phenyl bonds causing depolymerization to smaller intermediates including quinones and hydroxyl quinones (Kuhad et al.
Tien and Tu (1987) were the first to report the cloning of the cDNA-encoding lignin peroxidase H8. Since then much reports have been published about the number, structure, and organization of the P. chrysosporium peroxidase genes. However, there is still uncertainty about the exact number and structure of LiP genes (Highley and Dashek 1998). The LiP genes in P. chrysosporium have been reported to vary from 5 to 15 (Gaskell et al. 1994). An RFLP-based genetic map localized LiP genes of P. chrysosporium isolate ME446 to two linkage groups (Raeder et al.
Canada (Moo-Young et al. 1979). The process is based on the cellulolytic fungus Chaetomium cellulolyticum and utilizes agricultural residues such as straw, corn stoves, bagasse, and forestry residues such as wood sawdust and pulp mill sludges (Moo-Young et al. 1978). The process uses a three-stage operation involving: 1. Thermal and/or Chemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic substrate 2. Aerobic Fermentation of the Pretreated Material with Nutrient Supplement 3. 5 and 37 °C. Recovery of fungal mycelium is accomplished by filtration, and the dried product contains about 45% crude protein.