By Roger Célestin, Eliane DalMolin, Isabelle de Courtivron
This quantity, a set of essays through a few high-profile personalities operating in philosophy, literature, sociology, cinema, theatre, journalism, and politics, covers a bunch a of contemporary and an important advancements within the box of French Feminisms that experience made a reassessment valuable. past French Feminisms proposes to respond to the query: what's new in French Feminism first and foremost of the twenty-first century? The essays mirror the shift from the theoretical and philosophical methods that characterised feminism 20 years in the past, to the extra social and political questions of this present day. themes contain: the 'parité' and PACS debates, the France-USA discussion, the 'multicultural' concerns, and the hot tendencies in literature and picture via women.
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Extra info for Beyond French Feminisms: Debates on Women, Politics, and Culture in France, 1981–2001
It has to do with the revival of feminism in France, at the same time as gay and lesbian issues found a new prominence—say, from the Chiennes de garde to Act-Up. Two pessimistic readings prevailed during the debates. First, parité exacerbated tensions among feminists, between those who supported and those opposed the reform. Indeed, feminist critics of parité feared that the political gain came at a great cost: were a few political positions worth the naturalization of gender? Was not the essentialization of womanhood lurking behind the updated version of “sexual difference”?
CHAPTER 2 Symbolic Violence Pierre Bourdieu People act as if the feminist revolution were a fait accompli. They enumerate women’s victories, the formerly inaccessible social positions they now occupy. They feign uneasiness about the threat this new power poses for men and even go so far as to form movements for the defense of male interests. The dominant always tend to overestimate the victories of the dominated and to give themselves credit for that which was actually wrested from them by force.
This permanence, which can hide behind an undetected shift in the border separating the sexes, as in the case of education, can only be grasped if an element altogether different from the effects of external force and masculine will is introduced. Yet it would be no less naïve (and scandalous) to assign responsibility, as has been done, to women themselves, although they can appear, in a number of instances, as contributing to their own exclusion. In questioning adolescent girls about their academic experience, one cannot help but be struck by the “collective expectations,” (“attentes collectives”) to borrow an expression from Marcel Mauss, and by the powers of inducement, both positive and negative, that parents, teachers (especially guidance counselors), and peers exert by explicitly reminding them what the traditional view considers their proper calling.