By Carlo Carraro, Gilbert E. Metcalf
Most folk could agree that it is smart to tax a firm that pollutes in a manner that without delay displays the quantity of environmental and social harm it has performed. but in perform, such taxes are fraught with hassle and feature far-reaching implications. a firm dealing with a brand new tax may possibly lay off employees, for instance, exacerbating an unemployment challenge. This quantity makes a speciality of such exterior concerns and examines intimately the trade-offs keen on designing guidelines to house environmental difficulties. Reflecting the extensive nature of the topic, the members contain major economists within the components of public finance, commercial association, and alternate idea, in addition to environmental economists. Integrating either theoretical and empirical equipment, they research environmental coverage layout because it pertains to place judgements, compliance expenditures, administrative bills, results on study and improvement, and foreign issue hobbies. laying off mild on an awfully complicated and significant subject, this assortment should be of curiosity to all these considering designing powerful environmental coverage.
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Additional resources for Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
In contrast, observations of annual earnings levels (rather than implicit hourly wage rates) are relatively straightforward to obtain. Moreover, differences in earnings levels across households can be expected to feature a strong correlation with underlying diﬀerences in earning capacities. Consequently, policymakers typically rely on distortionary income taxes (and transfers) to ﬁnance public outlays and redistribute income across households. Second, environmental taxes often cannot be targeted directly on emissions, as evidenced by the comprehensive review of Fullerton, Hong, and Metcalf of actual environmental taxes employed by various governments around the world.
Lans, and Lawrence H. Goulder. 1996. Optimal environmental taxation in the presence of other taxes: General equilibrium analyses. American Economic Review 86:985–1000. Bovenberg, A. Lans, and Frederic van der Ploeg. 1994. Environmental policy, public ﬁnance, and the labor market in a second-best world. Journal of Public Economics 55:349–90. Cremer, Helmuth, and Firouz Gahvari. 1999. What to tax: Emissions or polluting goods? University of Illinois. Mimeo. Cropper, Maureen, and Wallace Oates. 1992.
The optimum might then involve some optimal degree of eﬀort to measure and tax emissions. Second, our model considers a tax on the output of the polluting industry for comparison with the ideal emissions tax, but some of the actual environmental taxes apply to an input to production that is correlated with pollution. To analyze such a tax, our model would have to be modiﬁed such that the polluting industry uses three inputs to production: labor, emissions, and some other input that is correlated to emissions.