By Stuart Cole
* absolutely up-to-date 3rd version of a longtime delivery textbook
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Extra resources for Applied Transport Economics: Policy, Management & Decision Making
However, competition rules will encourage new entrants and the expansion of existing low cost operators at new hubs (eg Ryanair to Milan-Berganio; bmibaby to Cardiff). Changes in service quality such as punctuality, improved seating and at-seat films are now becoming part of the low cost airlines’ branding strategy. Although price is the paramount selection criterion by passengers and has proved a successful strategy, greater competition is leading some brands towards a middle market image where airlines ‘need to give more’ (Bierwirth, 2003).
For all ticket types the fares were considerably undercut, so that a market which rail passenger service operators would normally consider their own – the commuter market – was likely to see passengers transfer to express coach. The coach services introduced by Oxford City Link in 1982 and subsequently by the Oxford Tube service still operate with high load factors and the fare differentials are still significant. In 1996, price competition between the coach operators reduced prices at one point to below the 1986 levels and increased total patronage (through own price elasticity).
The reluctance of car drivers to drink and drive has been exploited by operators such as Yellow Buses, Bournemouth (YB, 1984) and Gemeentevervoerbedrijf (GVB) Amsterdam and Transport for London (TfL) night bus network in campaigns such as ‘sensible drinking can make you go yellow’ – a map showing pubs and winebars together with bus routes passing their doors. 18 Market Demand 3. Changes in competitors’ services or prices The improvement in alternative services, particularly at a reduced price, may lead to changes in demand for a particular operator’s services.