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April 4, 2017 | Zoology | By admin | 0 Comments

By Stephen Walker

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The idea is that a change is taking place not in the sensory input or in the motor output devices, as in (i) and (ii) above, but in the connection between the two. It is thus sometimes said to be more ‘central’ than the changes in the sensory and motor periphery. However, within the dissected out ganglia of the sea-slug, or the dissected out spinal cord of the frog, it has been possible to locate the S-R habituation process in individual synapses. In discussing both habituation and dishabituation of the gill withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, Castellucci and Kandel (1976) reported, ‘These mechanisms share a common locus, the presynaptic terminals of the central neurons projecting on their central target cells.

3 The conditioned reflex modelled as a simple neural circuit. US is a neuron which is activated by the unconditioned stimulus, and is directly connected to the neuron R, which outputs the unconditioned response. CS is a neuron which has a connection to R, but which does not normally fire R. However, the CS becomes able to fire R if the CS output to R is accompanied by the output from the facilitator neuron, F. Thus the connection between CS and R is made stronger when CS and Us are active at the same time.

59—60). Another result quoted by Pavlov is what he called ‘secondary extinction’. It was common in his experiments to establish more than one conditioned stimulus at a time, partly since changes of this kind increased the alertness of the animals. Thus a dog might have dilute acid squirted into its mouth after the sound of a metronome, or after the sound of a buzzer, or after the tactile stimulus of a touch on the skin. Now if the metronome is given without the reinforcement, responses to the other two stimuli are extinguished as well (1927, p.

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