By Stephen Grossberg
Those books compile fresh neural versions of imaginative and prescient, speech and language popularity and remember, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, realization, circadian rhythms, motor regulate, and sure psychological problems. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary information from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for computing device imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing trend attractiveness machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.
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The external cues associated with the food thereupon become conditioned reinforcers with respect to the hunger drive representation. A similar argument holds when water is drunk. , 1952), but provided no mechanistic description of how incentive motivation differs from drive and reinforcement. Some recent theories of conditioning have fallen into difficulties analogous to those implied by the Kendler (1946)data, because they do not include the notions of a drive representation and incentive motivation (Hall and Pearce, 1980).
This property could, of course, have disastrous consequences. Speaking intuitively, the problem is clear: Some index of organismic need must exist to prevent unappropriate consummation. More generally, indices of the organism’s internal states must be introduced to modulate its reactions to available external cues. At this point in the theory, it could have happened that no plausible modification of the previously derived network dynamics could overcome this difficulty. Quite to the contrary, however, t,here exists a discernible symmetry in the networks, but a missing mechanism mars this symmetry, and its introduction will overcome our difficulty.
In the network theory, patterned LTM traces vary slowly through time and gate rapidly fluctuating signals from the external cue representations to the drive representations. In the sampling model, these two distinct processes are lumped into the probability that a scanned cue will be associated with an amplifier element. A conditioned reinforcer LTM trace can, however, be very large even if, due to the momentary STM inactivity of the cue representation, there is a zero probability of “scanning an amplifier element” at that time.