By Clare Huffington
A pragmatic advisor to the necessities of organisational swap with no heading off the tricky factor of guiding humans during the means of transition.
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Additional resources for A Manual of Organizational Development: Psychology of Change
T h e s e different a s p e c t s a r e c a p t u r e d b e l o w . Diagnostic orientation literal — • objective — s u b j e c t i v e symbolic rational — e m o t i v e analytical — i n t u i t i v e overt — c o v e r t psychological —*~ psychological and or sociological structure/form — ^ sociological virtual organization Practitioner orientation lone groups a n d teams singular speciality dependent or . — — multiple specialities interdependent independent i n s i d e and i n s i d e or o u t s i d e internal or external expert / facilitator — i n t e r n a l and outside external learner / developer ORGANIZATION 25 DEVELOPMENT Organizational/business orientation business process — learning organization — partners — stakeholders management employees, customers, suppliers shareholders management — • leadership tasks — • relationships competition — * cooperation portfolio careers/lives — output contracts — psychological security — jobs employment contracts occupational security programme evaluation hierarchical structure loyalty rules a n d sanctions — — — — linear thinking business benefits networks commitment vision a n d principles systems thinking standardization ethical policies — — diversity organizations — organizations as machines moral actions as organisms Interventions orientation top down/bottom u p — • strategy expert design — — hierarchy and power — silos interpersonal and small groups — • — intrapersonal and large groups emphasis on people segmented long-term change remedial — • — — emphasis on all inside out/outside i n implementation co-creation relationships and inclusion ponds integrated on-going change preventative 26 M A N U A L OF O R G A N I Z A T I O N A L DEVELOPMENT Change orientation incremental —transformational discontinuous —continuous linear — • cyclical creating disequilibrium — c r e a t i n g balance and harmony planning start/stop single client —aligning — f l o w —*~ multiple clients Process orientation communication —*~ dialogue values either/or —meaning —both/and empowerment form — • existing — • unconscious deeds — c o n s c i o u s thoughts participative democracy —*~ spirit being and actions CHAPTER 3 CONSULTING TO ORGANIZATIONS Continuum of consultancy styles Process consultancy roles Theoretical approaches Organizational context & consultant legitimacy Consultant independence Sources of consultants/change agents Knowledge base & skills Organization development c a n be facilitated b y a change agent, w h o could be internal or external to the organization a n d w h o s e job title could be manager, h u m a n resources professional, or consultant.
W h a t w i l l h a p p e n to m e if I g o a l o n g w i t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t — a n d w h a t if I d o n ' t ? " W h e n p e o p l e begin a s k i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t shifts into a larger context, w h i c h i n c l u d e s b e h a v i o u r s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e y o n d the i m m e d i a t e a n d a p p a r e n t r e l a tionship between internal consultants clients w h o are also colleagues.
There are built-in b a c k m e c h a n i s m s " ( " h o w a r e w e d o i n g ? " ) at a l l l e v e l s . "feed ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT 17 There is a constant awareness of the values, beliefs, a n d a s s u m p tions u s e d i n the organization, of the position of the organization i n its life cycle, a n d of the constraints and controls o n the organi zation's inputs a n d outputs. Environment T h e organization is seen as a n open system, embedded i n a complex environment, the parts of w h i c h are constantly m a k i n g demands.