By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many sorts of individuals. Naturalists watch their sleek locomotion. Fishermen might dread the swarms that could hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations consume the medusae. Comparative physiologists learn them as potentially uncomplicated versions for the functioning of assorted structures. This e-book integrates information from these and different investigations right into a useful biology of scyphozoa. it's going to emphasize the big variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically quite basic animals. The ebook will be aware of the study of the final 35 years, partially simply because there was a speedy enlargement of information in the course of that interval, and in part simply because a lot of the former paintings was once summarized via books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been integrated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are incorporated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released by means of Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan staff has used as its 'bible' the monograph via F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. regardless of its restrictive name, his ebook studies many of the details at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Additional resources for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
3). 3 Longitudinal section through a swimming muscle fibre of Cassiopea xamachana showing a single myofibril and parallel rows of mitochondria. The striated myofibrils exhibit distinct 1- and A-bands, Z-discs and M-lines in the Hzone. Mi = mitochondria. S. 6 mm) than in higher animals. They are separated by Z-discs formed from accumulations of granules. In cross-sections of the outer A-band, where thick and thin filaments overlap, the thick filaments are arranged in a regular lattice with thin filaments arranged hexagonally around the thick ones.
The results were reviewed by Passano (1982). 9). The overlying myoepithelial cells can be removed and modern intracellular recording can be carried out on the neurons (Anderson and Schwab, 1984). This preparation has attracted the attention of neurophysiologists because of the significant discovery of unusual two-way transmission at the synapses between two neurons (for reviews, see Anderson and Spencer, 1989; Spencer, 1989). Caution must be used in generalizing from this preparation to other scyphozoan nerves.
Putative sensory cells may also be obtained by macerations of the subumbrellar epithelium (Krasifiska, 1914). 1). The only other sensory cells in the polyp, so far identified by electron microscopy, are present on the tentacles (Westfall, 1973; Chia, Amerongen and Peteya, 1984; Spangenberg, 1991). The surface of each of these cells has a cilium with a circle of microvilli and there is a single axon at the base of the cell. Earlier workers, using maceration or histological methods, also described similar cells in the epithelia of the calices of stauromedusae (Kassianow, 1901).